Tag Archives: Windows

Professional vs. Non-Professional

I and a Windows (Wintel) Systems Administrator by training and experience. I also have worked as a Network administrator and had a Completed  CCNA course work.

When joining my friend Vizo at Vulcans Logic Networks; Vizo introduce me to “Eli the Computer Guy”  I realized I wasn’t a real profession for the 13 years.

True professionals work on and develop their skills and push beyond the everyday routine, but just doing things to get the job done.  I had forgotten what about the passion I had for computers, science, engineering, and technology before I started working as a professional.

I built my first computer at 13 years old and always had a computer lab, once I completed my MCSA/CCNA security boot camp and get rid of my lab and started work for the last 13 years, doing things just to get it done developing bad habits.

The 2 years I come back to basics I am rebuilding hackers labs and built and new computer room and I working on a new notebook.

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I am learning Linux Administration and DevOps engineering and improving and advancing my skills Windows (Wintel) systems administration and network administration.

What is the difference between a professional and a non-professional?  I use to think it was knowledge, but no is it is love and passion for what it is that you do.

Anyone can develop the skills and knowledge but can do have the passion and love to do what you do.

That is the real difference.

Backup and Restore the Registry – Guide for Windows XP, 7, 8, 8.1, 10

Before you begin any work on windows registry you should always back it up first,  Here is a list how. enjoy.

Charles O. Lucas – Otaku Computer Guy!


Backup and restore the registry in Windows XP

To back up the registry on a Windows XP computer, follow these steps:

  1. Click Start
  2. Click Run
  3. Type regedit in the search box and click OK to open the Registry Editor
  4. On the left pane, click Computer to select it
  5. From File, in the menu, click Export
  6. In the Export Registry File window, type a filename for this backup
  7. Then choose All under the Export range section and select a location on your system where you want to save the backup registry file, then click Save.

    Add a meaningful name for the backup file to distinguish different backup files, if you have multiples ones.

    You can save the file to Desktop.

The registry backup files are saved with this extension: .reg

To restore the registry in Windows XP, follow these steps:

  1. Open the Registry Editor: type regedit at Run and click OK
  2. Go to the File menu and click Import
  3. At the Import Registry File window, browse to locate the backup file (on the Desktop, if you saved it there)
  4. Select the file and click Open
  5. Once the import process is complete, restart your computer and log in back on your Windows XP computer

Windows XP regedit screen

Backup and restore the registry in Windows Vista

To backup the Registry in Windows Vista, follow these steps:

  1. Click Start
  2. Type regedit in the search box
  3. Click the regedit item from the search results list
  4. Click Continue, if you’re prompted by the UAC (User Account Control) warning message
  5. Select Computer from the left side. Make sure it’s selected.
  6. Go to File and then click Export
  7. At the Export Registry File, type a filename for the backup file and then choose All under the Export range section
  8. Select a location where you want to save the backup file
  9. Click Save

Backup files of the Registry are saved with this extension: .reg

To restore a previously created .reg file on a Windows Vista, follow these instructions:

  1. Open the Registry Editor: type regedit at the search box and click on the regedit item when it appears in the search results list
  2. At File, click Import
  3. At the Import Registry File screen, browse and select the backup .reg file that needs to be restored
  4. Click Open
  5. When the process is complete, restart your Windows Vista system

Windows Vista regedit screen

Backup and restore the registry in Windows 7

To backup the Registry on a Windows 7 system, follow these steps:

  1. Click Start
  2. Type regedit in the search box
  3. Click the regedit item appearing in the list
  4. Click Continue, if you’re prompted by User Account Control
  5. Select Computer from the left side. Make sure it’s selected.
  6. Go to File and then Export
  7. At the Export Registry File, type a name for the backup file
  8. Choose All under the Export range section
  9. Select a location where you want to save the backup file
  10. Click Save

The backup files are saved with this extension: .reg

=To restore a previously created backup file of the Registry in Windows 7, follow these instructions:

  1. Open the Registry Editor: type regedit at the search box and click on the regedit item when it appears in the search results list
  2. At File, click Import
  3. At the Import Registry File screen, browse and select the backup .reg file to be restored from your Desktop or from where you saved it
  4. Click Open
  5. Once completed, restart the computer to login back on your Windows 7 computer

Windows 7 regedit screen

Backup and restore the registry in Windows 8 or 8.1

To create a backup of the current Registry in a Windows 8 or 8.1 system, follow these steps:

  1. Go to Search or press the Windows and C key to open the Charm Bar
  2. Type regedit in the search box
  3. Click regedit from the search results list
  4. Click Yes, if you’re prompted by User Account Control
  5. Select Computer from the left side. Make sure it’s selected before you proceed to the next step.
  6. Go to File and then click on Export
  7. At the Export Registry File, type a name for the backup file
  8. Choose All under the Export range section
  9. Select a location where you want to save the backup file
  10. Click Save

Note: Any backup files of the Registry are saved with this extension: .reg

To restore the registry using a previously created .reg file on a Windows 8 or 8.10 system, follow these steps:

  1. Open the Registry Editor: type regedit at the search box and click on the regedit item when it appears in the search results list.To open the Search Bar, press the Windows and C keys.
  2. At File, click the Import option
  3. At the Import Registry File screen, browse and select the backup file you want to restore
  4. Click Open
  5. Once the process is complete, restart your computer and log back in on your Windows 8/8.1 computer

Windows 8 regedit screen

Backup and restore the registry in Windows 10

To create a backup of the current Registry in a Windows 10 system, follow these steps:

  1. Type regedit in the search box
  2. Click regedit from the search results list
  3. Click Yes, if you’re prompted by User Account Control
  4. Select Computer from the left side. Make sure it’s selected before you proceed to the next step.
  5. Go to File and then click on Export
  6. At the Export Registry File, type a name for the backup file
  7. Choose All under the Export range section
  8. Select a location where you want to save the backup file
  9. Click Save

Note: Any backup files of the Registry are saved with this extension: .reg

To restore the registry using a previously created .reg file on a Windows 8 or 8.10 system, follow these steps:

  1. Open the Registry Editor: type regedit at the search box and click on the regedit item when it appears in the search results list.
  2. At File, click the Import option
  3. At the Import Registry File screen, browse and select the backup file you want to restore
  4. Click Open
  5. Once the process is complete, restart your computer and log back in on your Windows 10 computer

Windows 10 regedit screen

More Information

Linked Entries

Support Links

Applicable Systems

This Windows-related knowledgebase article applies to the following operating systems:

  • Windows XP (all editions)
  • Windows Vista (all editions)
  • Windows 7 (all editions)
  • Windows 8 (all editions)
  • Windows 8.1 (all editions)
  • Windows 10 (all editions)

Reference: https://neosmart.net/wiki/backup-restore-registry/

 

Basics of Fixing and Windows 8 or 10 PC

I just opened a computer repair business from my home and I just got my first and I been working in IT for 15 years.  Here a some of my notes on repairing Windows 8 and 10 PC.

Generally, this for a corrupted OS. I post a later article on Malware and Virus removal.
The most import thing is below.

Important!!! Hardware needed!

Do not use a Bluetooth keyboard and mouse, I a regular keyboard and mouse for repair, because Bluetooth keyboard and mouse may work under the BIOS but lose connection when the BIOS gives control to the OS and if OS doesn’t boot or load properly you may not be able to boot the Windows OS in safe mode or recovery mode.

I found must problem can be solved in Window 8 and 10 once you access recovery mode, but during an Automatic Repair loop, when the PC just keeps going into repair and Bluetooth Keyboard can’t communicate with the OS.

So attach a good out USB wired keyboard to the PC for recovery.  Follow the steps below:

Getting into Recovery/Safe Mode:

  1. Press the Power Button three times and the system to boot into recovery/safe mode.

 

How can you get F8 work again? 

F8 boot menu feature is disabled on Windows 10 by default. The good news is you can get it to work again with the Boot Configuration Data (BCD) Edit command. BCD Edit is a tool written to control how the operating system is started. You can use it to enable the F8 boot menu easily. Just follow these steps:

1) On your keyboard, press Windows logo key and R key at the same time to invoke the run command.

2) Type cmd then press Ctrl+Shift+Enter to open an administrator command prompt. (Don’t just press Enter or click OK as that won’t open the command prompt in an administrator mode.)

3) Copy the following command and paste it in the Command Prompt. Then on your keyboard, press the Enter key.

bcdedit /set {default} bootmenupolicy legacy

4) Reboot your PC. Before the Windows logo appears, press F8 to access the Boot Options menu (see below screenshot). Then select Safe Mode.


 

Notes: If F8 is disabled by default if you want to use F8 you need to enable it. You can get F8 work again only when you’re able to access Windows. If you can’t start Windows normally, you need to use another effective way.

Thanks, Charles O. Lucas – the Otaku Computer Guy!


If the Windows including Windows 10 or Windows 8 fails to boot, it will launch its built-in tool –Automatic Repair to attempt to repair Windows. However, Automatic Repair has some limitations. Sometimes, like any other programs, Automatic Repair fails to work and you get an error message – Automatic Repair couldn’t repair your PC.

What should we do if we stuck in Windows Automatic Repair loop? How to solve this issue with ease?

Disclaimer: please always make a backup copy of your files before using any of the advice provided here. If not sure, seek qualified assistance before proceeding on your own!

Fortunately, Bootable installation media or Recovery Drive/System Repair Disc can help to fix Automatic Repair couldn’t repair your PC error. Here are 7 quick fixes to help you get out of Windows Automatic Repair loop.

Step 1 

Safe mode starts Windows in a basic state, using a limited set of files and drivers. It can help you troubleshoot problems on your PC. For example, if the problem doesn’t happen in safe mode, you’ll know default settings and basic device drivers aren’t causing the issue.

There are two versions of safe mode: Safe Mode and Safe Mode with Networking. They’re quite similar, but Safe Mode with Networking includes the network drivers and services you’ll need to access the Internet and other computers on your network.

Select from the following sections to find out how to start your PC in safe mode from either Setting, from the sign-in screen, or from a black or blank screen.

  1. Press Windows logo key  + I on your keyboard to open Settings. If that doesn’t work, select the Start button, then select Settings.
  2. Select Update & Security  > Recovery.
  3. Under Advanced startup, select Restart now.
  4. After your PC restarts to the Choose an option screen, select Troubleshoot Advanced options > Startup Settings > Restart.
    Choose an option screen in the Windows Recovery Environment.
    Troubleshoot screen in the Windows Recovery Environment.
    Advanced options screen in the Windows Recovery Environment.
    Startup Settings  screen in the Windows Recovery Environment.
  5. After your PC restarts, you’ll see a list of options. Select 4 or press F4 to start your PC in Safe Mode. Or if you’ll need to use the Internet, select 5 or press F5 for Safe Mode with Networking.

From the sign-in screen

  1. Restart your device by pressing the Shift key while you select the Power button on the bottom right corner of the sign-in screen.
  2. After your PC restarts to the Choose an option screen, select Troubleshoot > Advanced options > Startup Settings > Restart.
    Choose an option screen in the Windows Recovery Environment.
    Troubleshoot screen in the Windows Recovery Environment.
    Advanced options screen in the Windows Recovery Environment.
    Startup Settings  screen in the Windows Recovery Environment.
  3. After your PC restarts, you’ll see a list of options. Select 4 or F4 to start your PC in safe mode. Or if you’ll need to use the Internet, select 5 or F5 for Safe Mode with Networking.

From a black or blank screen

Before you enter safe mode, you need to enter the Windows Recovery Environment (winRE). To do this, you will repeatedly turn your device off, then on:

  1. Hold down the power button for 10 seconds to turn off your device.
  2. Press the power button again to turn on your device.
  3. On the first sign that Windows has started (for example, some devices show the manufacturer’s logo when restarting) hold down the power button for 10 seconds to turn off your device.
  4. Press the power button again to turn on your device.
  5. When Windows restarts, hold down the power button for 10 seconds to turn off your device.
  6. Press the power button again to turn on your device.
  7. Allow your device to fully restart. You will enter winRE.

Now that you are in winRE, you will follow these steps to take you to safe mode:

  1. On the Choose an option screen, select Troubleshoot > Advanced options > Startup Settings > Restart.
    Choose an option screen in the Windows Recovery Environment.
    Troubleshoot screen in the Windows Recovery Environment.
    Advanced options screen in the Windows Recovery Environment.
    Startup Settings  screen in the Windows Recovery Environment.
  2. After your device restarts, you’ll see a list of options. Select option 5 from the list or press F5 for Safe Mode with Networking.

If you need more info on a black or blank screen error, see Troubleshoot black or blank screen errors.

Other Methods

Method 1: Use Check Disk Utility

Connect the Windows installation media or Recovery Drive/System Repair Disc to your PC, select your language preferences, and finally click Next button to continue.

  1. Click Repair your computer at the bottom.
  2. Choose Troubleshoot>Advanced Options>Command Prompt.
  3. Type chkdsk /f /r C:and then press Enter
  4. Type exitand press Enter.
  5. Restart your PC to see if the problem is fixed or not.

Method 2: Fix Boot and Rebuild BCD via Command Prompt

  1. Open Command Prompt according to the steps in Method 1.
  2. Type exe /rebuildbcd and press Enter.
  3. Type exe /fixmbr and press Enter.
  4. Type exe /fixbootand press Enter.
  5. Type exit and press Enterafter completing each command successfully.
  6. Restart your PC. If you are still stuck in Windows Automatic Repair loop, try the next method.

 

Method 3: Restore Windows Registry

  1. In Windows Boot Options menu, choose Troubleshoot >Advanced Options>Command Prompt.
  2. In Command Prompt, type the following command in command prompt and then hit Enter.

cd C:\windows\system32\logfiles\srt\ (change your drive letter accordingly)

  1. Type txtto open the file in notepad.
  2. Press CTRL + O.
  3. Select “All files” from file type and navigate to C:\windows\system32.
  4. Right click CMDand select Run as administrator.
  5. Typecd C:\windows\system32\config and press Enter.
  6. Backup those files by renaming Default, Software, SAM, System and Security files to .bak.
  7. Type the following command one by one & hit enter: rename DEFAULT DEFAULT.bakrename SAM SAM.bak

rename SECURITY SECURITY.bak

rename SOFTWARE SOFTWARE.bak

rename SYSTEM SYSTEM.bak

  1. Typecopyc:\windows\system32\config\RegBack c:\windows\system32\config and press Enter.
  2. Restart PC.

Method 4: Delete the Problematic File

  1. Access Command Prompt again and enter the following command:

cd C:\Windows\System32\LogFiles\Srt

SrtTrail.txt

  1. Then, you could see “Boot critical file c:\windows\system32\drivers\tmel.sys is corrupt.”
  2. Now, type the following command to the problematic file.

cd c:\windowssystem32drivers

del vsock.sys

  1. Finally, restart PC. If these solutions can not help, please try the following troubleshooting steps to fix Windows Automatic Repair Fails to work.

Method 5: Disable Automatic Startup Repair

  1. In Command Prompt, type bcdedit /set {default} recoveryenabled No and press Enter.
  2. Restart your PC, the Automatic Startup Repair should be disabled and you might be able to access Windows 10 again.
  3. If you need to again enable it, you can type bcdedit /set {default} recovery enabled Yes in CMD and press Enter.

 

Method 6: Check Device Partition and OsdevicePartition

Sometimes, if your device partition values aren’t correct, you will stuck in Windows Automatic Repair loop. Now, follow these steps to remove the Windows 10 Automatic Repair couldn’t repair your PC error.

  1. In Command Prompt, type bcdedit and press enter.
  2. Find device partition and osdevice partition values and make sure their values are correct or set to correct partition. Because Windows comes preinstalled on C partition only, the default and correct value are C:.Enter the following commands and press Enter after each one if the value isn’t set to C:

bcdedit /set {default} device partition=c:

bcdedit /set {default} osdevice partition=c:

  1. After that, reboot PC and fix Automatic Repair couldn’t repair your PC error.

Method 7: Perform Refresh or Reset Your PC

If Windows Automatic Repair loop issue still exists after trying the above six solutions, you can try the last method- performing a refresh or reset- to fix Windows Automatic Startup Repair boot issue.

  1. ChooseTroubleshooting when the Boot menu appears.
  2. Choose between fresh your PC or Reset your PC.
  3. Follow the instructions to complete the process.

Note: no matter which you choose, your some data might be deleted during the refresh or reset process. It is recommended to backup your important files before taking this step. You can check this tutorial to know how to recover data when the PC won’t boot quickly and effectively.


Using Systems Restore:

System Restore

If you have enabled System Protection before and created a restore point, you can perform System Restore to fix Windows 10 /8 automatic repair loop.

Step 1 When you see Advanced Startup Options screen, click Troubleshoot > Advanced options > System Restore.

Step 2 Select a restore point that created before the automatic repair loop. Windows will restore your computer to the original status.


These are personal notes I have collected from various websites and my own personal experiences in the field.  They focus on using the built-in tools Microsoft built into Windows 8 and 10.

You should not need to buy someones third-party applications to fix your PC, and Use should using both Windows System Restore and Windows Backup utilities.  I will write and separate article on using Windows System Restore and Windows Backup to protect your PC. if you a google account the Google cloud backup is another great backup tool to protect your data.

Charles O. Lucas – the Otaku Computer Guy!


References

  1. https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/12376/windows-10-start-your-pc-in-safe-mode
  2. https://www.technology.org/2017/11/14/7-ways-fix-stuck-in-windows-automatic-repair-loop/
  3. https://www.fonepaw.com/windows/windows-10-automatic-repair-loop.html
  4. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/software-download/windows10ISO
  5. https://www.fonepaw.com/windows/windows-10-automatic-repair-loop.html

Windows OS Memory

Here are some notes I made on Memory for windows OS and NOS operating systems. 
Memory maximums for current Microsoft® Windows OS’s include:
 
32-bit OS

Windows 8 (32 bit)
  • Windows 8 Enterprise: 4 GB
  • Windows 8 Professional: 4 GB
  • Windows 8 Home: 4 GB
 
Windows 7 (32 bit)
  • Ultimate: 4 GB
  • Enterprise: 4 GB
  • Business: 4 GB
  • Home Premium: 4 GB
  • Home Basic: 4 GB
  • Starter: 2 GB
 
Windows Vista (32 bit)
  • Ultimate: 4 GB
  • Enterprise: 4 GB
  • Business: 4 GB
  • Home Premium: 4 GB
  • Home Basic: 4 GB
  • Starter: 1 GB
 
Windows XP (32 bit)
  • Professional: 4 GB
  • Home: 4 GB
  • Starter Edition: 512 MB
 
Windows Server 2003 (32 bit)
  • Datacenter SP2: 128 GB
  • Enterprise SP2: 64 GB
  • Standard SP1: 4 GB*
  • Datacenter R2: 128 GB
  • Enterprise R2: 64 GB
  • Standard R2: 4 GB*
  • Web Edition: 4 GB*
  • Small Business Edition: 4 GB*
Windows Server 2008 (32 bit)
  • Datacenter: 64 GB
  • Enterprise: 64 GB
  • Standard: 4 GB
  • Web Server: 4 GB

 

* Certain Microsoft server operating systems can support over 4GB of memory via Physical Address Extension (PAE). Please refer to the Microsoft knowledgebase article located here for more information.
64-bit OS

Windows 8 (64 bit)
  • Enterprise: 512 GB
  • Professional: 512 GB
  • Home: 128 GB
 
Windows 7 (64 bit)
  • Windows 7 Ultimate: 192 GB
  • Windows 7 Enterprise: 192 GB
  • Windows 7 Professional: 192 GB
  • Windows 7 Home Premium: 16 GB
  • Windows 7 Home Basic: 8 GB
  • Windows 7 Starter: N/A
 
Windows Vista (64 bit)
  • Ultimate: 128 GB
  • Enterprise: 128 GB
  • Business: 128 GB
  • Home Premium: 16 GB
  • Home Basic: 8 GB
 
Windows XP (64 bit)
  • Professional: 128 GB
  • Windows Server 2003 (64 bit)
  • Datacenter SP2: 2 TB
  • Enterprise SP2: 2 TB
  • Standard SP1: 32 GB
  • Datacenter R2: 1 TB
  • Enterprise R2: 1 TB
  • Standard R2: 32 GB
  • Small Business Edition: 128 GB
 
Windows Server 2008 (64 bit)
  • Datacenter: 2 TB
  • Enterprise: 2 TB
  • Standard: 32 GB
  • Web Server: 32 GB
 
Windows Server 2012 (64 bit)
  • Datacenter: 4 TB
  • Standard: 4 TB
  • Essentials: 64 GB
  • Foundation: 32 GB
  • Storage Server 2012 Workgroup: 32 GB
  • Storage Server 2012 Standard: 4 TB
  • Hyper-V Server 2012: 4 TB